The Citizen Amendment Act (CAA) was passed in the Parliament on December 11, 2019. According to the Act, Hindu, Sikh, Parsi, Buddhist and Christian immigrants from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh, who have lived in India for six years will be granted citizenship. Earlier, 12 years of residence was the standard eligibility requirement for naturalisation.

After the Bill was passed in both the houses of the Parliament, a petition was filed stating that the legislation discriminates against Muslims and violates the right to equality enshrined in the Indian Constitution. Though some people believe that while the CAA itself is harmless, combined with the proposed nationwide National Register of Citizens (NRC) it will become a tool to exclude the Muslim population of the country. Protests over the Bill raged across the country for over two months from December 2019 to February 2020.

Here’s a timeline of the event unfolded:

4 December, 2019

The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was cleared by the Union Cabinet for introduction in the Parliament

After the bill was cleared, violent protests erupted in Assam, especially in Guwahati, and other areas in the state

9 December, 2019

The bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha by Union Home Minister Amit Shah

10 December, 2019

The Bill passed with 311 members voting in favour and 80 against

11 December, 2019

Rajya Sabha passed the bill with 125 votes in favour and 105 votes against it

12 December, 2019

After receiving assent from the President of India, the Bill assumed the status of an Act

Akhil Gogoi was taken in preventive custody

Protests begin at Shaheen Bagh, New Delhi

13 December, 2019

UK, US, France, Israel and Canada issued travel warnings for their citizens visiting India’s north-east region

Chief ministers of West Bengal, Punjab, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh stated that they would not implement the Act

14 December, 2019

Thousands of people protested against the law at the Jantar Mantar in New Delhi

15 December, 2019

In Jamia Nagar, Delhi, three Delhi Transport Corporation buses were torched as protests took a violent turn

Police allegedly entered the campus of Jamia Millia Islamia university forcefully and detained students

16 December, 2019

Priyanka Gandhi led a silent protest at the India Gate along with about 300 Congress workers

Prime Minister Narendra Modi appealed for calm on Twitter and clarified that CAA was for immigrants

17 December, 2019

Violent clashes occurred in Delhi’s Seelampur area. Police retaliated with tear gas and batons against the stone throwing protesters. Several protesters and officers were injured

18 December, 2019

The Supreme Court of India heard 60 petitions challenging the Act and declined to stay implementation of CAA

19 December, 2019

Access to internet was shut down in certain places in Delhi and Bangalore and certain regions of Uttar Pradesh

In Delhi, politicians Yogendra Yadav and Sitaram Yechury along with around 1,200 protesters were detained

Historian Ramchandra Guha along with several other professors were detained

20 December, 2019

Bhim Army chief Chandrashekhar Azad holds a protest march at the Jama Masjid in Delhi

21 December, 2019

Azad was arrested along with 27 people

23 December, 2019

AAP MLA Amanatullah Khan booked for “sharing an objectionable post” against the Act

24 December, 2019

The Centre approved updation of the National Population Register (NPR) and allocated Rs 3,941.35 crore for it

27 December, 2019

357 people, including 75 women, protesting against CAA were detained by the Delhi police

29 December, 2019

The Shaheen Bagh protests, which started around 11 December gathered mainstream media attention

30 December, 2019

Delhi Police arrested street vendors, accusing them of stone pelting and inciting violence during the Jamia Millia Islamia attacks

31 December, 2019

Protests held during New Year’s Eve celebrations in Delhi, Hyderabad, Bhubaneshwar, Mumbai and Kolkata

5 January, 2020

A masked mob, armed with rods and sticks, attacked the campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi, injuring more than 40 students and teachers

8 January, 2020

PM Modi cancelled his visit to Assam, while the CAA protests continue

9 January, 2020

JNU students attempted to march towards Rashtrapati Bhavan

10 January, 2020

The Citizenship Amendment Act came into force

The Delhi High Court dismissed a plea to remove the protesters occupying Shaheen Bagh

12 January, 2020

The Congress demanded withdrawal of CAA and stopping of the process to update NPR

14 January, 2020

The Kerala Government approached the Supreme Court to challenge the CAA under Section 131 of the Constitution and became the first state to do so

15 January, 2020

Bhim Army chief Chandrashekhar Azad granted bail

Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) postpones all exams due to the ongoing CAA protests

17 January, 2020

Inspired by the Shaheen Bagh protest, around 10,000 women gathered at the YMCA ground in Mumbai to protest in the evening

19 January, 2020

In Delhi, hundreds of protesters joined a protest march holding lighted candles from Jamia University to Shaheen Bagh

In Berlin, Germany more than 200 people join the protest march against CAA, NRC and the JNU attack

25 January, 2020

In London, around 2,000 people from the Indian diaspora and the Human Rights organisation conducted a protest march against CAA from the Downing Street to the Indian High Commission

26 January, 2020

More than 300 eminent personalities, including actor Naseeruddin Shah, Javed Jaffrey, and filmmaker Mira Nair signed and issued an open statement against the CAA

30 January, 2020

A juvenile opened fire at a protest at the Jamia Millia Islamia, injuring one student

Bihar Police detained CPI leader Kanhaiya Kumar

31 January, 2020

Opposition parties, led by the Indian National Congress, wore black armbands and vacated front row seats to protest against the new law during President Ram Nath Kovind’s address to the Joint Session of the Parliament of India for 2020 budget session

1 February, 2020

Shots were fired in the air during the Shaheen Bagh protests

Thousands of LGBT rights activists protest against the CAA in Mumbai

11 February, 2020

Jamia Millia Islamia students staged a march to the Parliament

17 February, 2020

Magsaysay Award recipient Sandeep Pandey arrested by the Lucknow police for attempting to protest

19 February, 2020

Secretary General of the United Nations António Guterres expressed concerns over the possibility of millions being rendered stateless due to the CAA and NRC

22 February, 2020

Maharashtra chief minister Uddhav Thackeray decided to not pass a resolution against the CAA

23 February, 2020

The protest in the Jafrabad Metro Station continued for the second day

24 February, 2020

One policeman and four protestors were killed and several shops and vehicles were burnt during a violent protest in Delhi

13 people were killed in the North East Delhi riots

25 February, 2020

Shoot-at-sight order was issued by Delhi Police after the anti-CAA and pro-CAA protests became violent

3 March, 2020

The UN high commissioner filed an intervention application in the Supreme Court to be made a party in the case.